When men morph into fathers, they experience a neural revival that benefits their children






Fill in the gaps in the extract of the article: How Dads Develop with prepositions and adverbs below:


into       around           out x2        with        up   

     away x2              off               to x3


(…) In the first few days after birth, babies’ brains are like sponges soaking 1. …. their sensory environment. (…)

(…) In the early days after birth, changes occur in the brains of both the dad and the baby. We can now see the mark left on a baby’s brain when a father is not around. When he sticks 2. ….. , a father gains a cognitive edge by virtue of tending 3. ….. his children. (…)

To unearth the roots of fatherly feelings, scientists had first to figure 4. …. where to look. On the surface, the intangible link of fatherhood appears nothing like a mother’s connection to her child. (…)

What a dad offers is less obvious. Sure, men help 5. ….. during conception, but afterward we are not exactly crucial 6. ….. a child’s survival. Nevertheless, research shows that the father-child bond makes a major contribution. If a father leaves his children to be raised solely by their mother, they are more likely to suffer a whole host of problems later in life, including emotional troubles, aggression and addiction. (…)

(…) parallel 7. …… how babies and mothers bond, many studies have shown that human fathers with higher levels of oxytocin (the “love hormone”) exhibit stronger paternal instincts and motivation in the first months of their child’s life.

(…) Taken together, these rat studies suggest a model for why fathers matter. A newborn emerges 8. ….. the world having spent weeks afloat in amniotic fluid, its senses somewhat deprived and its somatosensory cortex ripe for change. But instead of flourishing in the early postnatal days, the synapses of the somatosensory cortex wither 9. ……. when degus are raised without a father. As a result, the newborns may not process touch as well as they should, which could lead to a number of other developmental problems, such as metabolism issues and irregular hormone production.

A father’s brain, it seems, is significantly and beautifully intertwined 10. …… his offspring’s. “Having two parents is one thing,” Weiss points out, “but having effective relationships between parents and offspring is yet something else. It’s actually the effectiveness of the relationships [that matters].”

Perhaps my nephew, bolstered by a healthy set of brain connections that formed in response to the simple fact of Jack (=his father)’s touch, has already collected the tools he will need to fend 11. …… behavioral and emotional challenges as he grows older. And while I can’t exactly probe Jack’s brain to see if he is sprouting neurons, I noticed an undeniable change in his focus as his new bond took hold. Small movements and sounds from Landon that went unnoticed by most people mysteriously captured Jack’s attention. It is comforting to think that a small set of neurons might be tucked 12. ……. in Jack’s head solely dedicated to his son.


In order to read the whole article/check your answers go to:https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-dads-develop

Key: 1. up; 2. around; 3. to; 4.out; 5. out; 6. to; 7. to; 8. into; 9. away; 10. with; 11. off; 12. away



  • to morph – to transform
  • to sprout – to begin to grow
  • unsolicited – not asked for
  • lanky – tall, thin and moving rather awkwardly
  • staggering – astonishing
  • to clamor – to make a loud complaint or demand
  • to fend off – to avoid dealing with something that is unpleasant or difficult



Practice makes perfect

Use the suffixes in bold to make correct adjectives

and fill in the gaps in the article below

-al (x2)               -ous                   -able (x2)

 -ful (x2)            -ate                    -ive                     -ible


What My Father and My Relationship With Him Taught Me About Being a Leader

Tips for entrepreneurs on being resilient, 1. passion…., and living in the moment.

In the world of entrepreneurship, the lessons we learn from our parents can be 2. invalu….. As Father’s Day approaches, my heart is filled with a mix of gratitude and sorrow as I reflect on the profound impact my dad has had on my journey as an entrepreneur. Very unexpectedly, my dad was taken from us a few weeks ago at the young age of 61, leaving behind a legacy that continues to inspire me. (…) Here are some (…) pieces of wisdom that I learned from my father, which I believe can help many people become 3. exception….  leaders in any field:

My dad’s carpentry career has provided me with 4. impact….  lessons in adaptability and resilience, which have had a profound impact on my approach to entrepreneurship. (…)

At Pacaso, our initial years have been a testament to the power of perseverance and openness to learning and growth. We have achieved 5. remark….. success in enriching the lives of families across the country through our 6.innovat….  solution to second homeownership. (…)

Carpenters embody passion, a quality I witnessed firsthand through my father’s dedication to his craft. His commitment to his work taught me the values of persistence, discipline, and the importance of investing the required effort to realize my own passions. These principles have influenced my own 7. entrepreneuri… journey and continue to drive the passion for which I approach my role at Pacaso each day.

(…)  I strive to create a 8. meaning… narrative that resonates with others, as I authentically lead Pacaso towards a future where second homeownership is practical, 9. access…., and beneficial for families and communities alike. My unwavering belief in the transformative power of Pacaso drives me to work harder and harder, knowing that our innovative approach will have resounding impacts on the lives of families and the betterment of communities. (…)

I often reflect on my early memories of my father on the job site. He ran his small carpentry business with the precision and dedication one would expect from a renowned institution, like a federal bank. Punctuality, delivering top-notch work, 10. meticul… measurements, and leaving a clean site were non-negotiables. From a young age, he instilled in me the importance of safety and attention to detail, always striving for perfection. These values formed the foundation of our family’s work ethic, integrity, and commitment to excellence. (…)

In order to check yor answers/read the whole article, go tohttps://www.inc.com/austin-allison/what-my-father-my-relationship-with-him-taught-me-about-being-a-leader.html

Key: 1. passionate;2. invaluable; 3. exceptional; 4. impactful; 5. remarkable; 6. innovative; 7. entrepreneurial; 8. meaningful; 9. accessible; 10. meticulous




  • How would you describe your father in one word? 
  • Do you take after your father? In what ways?
  • What is your father’s biggest fault?
  • Are you happy with the way your father raised you?
  • Should fathers stay at home and look after the kids?
  • What’s the best piece of advice your father has ever given you?


Explore more to create your own teaching-learning experience!


A father-daughter bond, one photo at a time